This graph stinks . . . but I fixed it

A lesson on data representation


  • Blair Izard SUNY Empire State University
  • Kristal Cloft University of Hartford


mathematics education, high school mathematics, data representation, statistics


This article shares a lesson on data representation. Designed for high school mathematics classrooms, the lesson begins by exploring data from the 2020 presidential election. Then, students have the opportunity to find other misleading graphs, analyze how/why they are misleading, and create a revised version of the graph that more accurately shares the data. Throughout the article, we share details of how the lesson was implemented with a group of preservice mathematics teachers. We also share student reactions/work and recommendations for teaching this lesson within a high school setting.


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How to Cite

Izard, B., & Cloft, K. (2023). This graph stinks . . . but I fixed it: A lesson on data representation. Ohio Journal of School Mathematics, 95(1), 10–20. Retrieved from




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